Power Struggles
Hydro Development and First Nations in Manitoba and Quebec


Cover image (Power Struggles)

Power Struggles: Hydro Development and First Nations in Manitoba and Quebec examines the evolution of new agreements between First Nations and Inuit and the hydro corporations in Quebec and Manitoba, including the Wuskwatim Dam Project, Paix des Braves, and the Great Whale Project. In the 1970s, both provinces signed so-called “modern treaties” with First Nations for the development of large hydro projects in Aboriginal territories. In recent times, however, the two provinces have diverged in their implementation, and public opinion of these agreements has ranged from celebratory to outrage.Power Struggles brings together perspectives on these issues from both scholars and activists. In debating the relative merits and limits of these agreements, they raise a crucial question: Is Canada on the eve of a new relationship with First Nations, or do the same colonial attitudes that have long characterized Canadian-Aboriginal relations still prevail?

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Cover 1
Contents 8
Introduction 14
PART I: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on Hydro Developments, the State, and the First Peoples 24
Foreword 26
1 Hydro Development in Quebec and Manitoba: Old Relationshipsor New Social Contract? 30
2 The State, The Marketplace, and First Nations: Theorizing First Nation Self-Determination in an Era of Globalization 50
3 The Way to Modern Treaties: A Review of Hydro Projects and Agreements in Manitoba and Quebec 66
4 The Long Walk of Aboriginal Peoples: Achieving Rights, Freedom, and Self-Determination (1950–2005) 86
PART II: The Manitoba Experience: A Legacy of Disrespect 106
Foreword 108
5 Engineering Poverty: Colonialism and Hydroelectric Development in Northern Manitoba 114
6 A Step Back: The Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation and the Wuskwatim Project 140
7 In Service to Globalization: Manitoba Hydro, Aboriginal Communities, and the Integration of Electrical Markets 156
8 Monitoring for Success: Designing and Implementing a Monitoring Regime for Northern Manitoba 180
PART III: Toward a Change of Paradigm in Quebec 214
Foreword 216
9 Should the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement Serve as a Model Agreement for Other First Nations? 226
10 The End of an Era in Quebec: The Great Whale Project and the Inuit of Kuujjuarapik and the Umiujaq 238
11 More Dams for Nitassinan: New Business Partnerships between Hydro-Québec and Innu Communities 266
12 Governance and Hydro Development in Quebec and Manitoba 292
Contributors 306
Appendix: Selected Web Sites 310
Bibliography 314
Index 338