Muskekowuck Athinuwick
Original People of the Great Swampy Land


Cover image (Muskekowuck Athinuwick)

The original people of the Hudson Bay lowlands, often known as the Lowland Cree and known to themselves as Muskekowuck Athinuwick, were among the first Aboriginal peoples in northwestern North America to come into contact with Europeans. This book challenges long-held misconceptions about the Lowland Cree, and illustrates how historians have often misunderstood the role and resourcefulness of Aboriginal peoples during the fur-trade era. Although their own oral histories tell that the Lowland Cree have lived in the region for thousands of years, many historians have portrayed the Lowland Cree as relative newcomers who were dependent on the Hudson's Bay Company fur-traders by the 1700s. Historical geographer Victor Lytwyn shows instead that the Lowland Cree had a well-established traditional society that, far from being dependent on Europeans, was instrumental in the survival of traders throughout the network of HBC forts during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Cover 1
Contents 6
Maps, Charts, and Illustrations 7
Acknowledgements 8
Introduction 12
1. Who Are the Lowland Cree? 18
2. The Lowland Cree before European Contact: Images and Reality 42
3. Upland Neighbours: The Northern Ojibway, Upland Cree, and Eastmain Cree 56
4. Distant Enemies: The Inuit, Chipewyan, and Iroquois 74
5. The Lowland Cree and the Land: Seasonal Adaptations to Regional Resources 96
6. The Lowland Cree in the Fur Trade before 1713 130
7. The Lowland Cree in the Fur Trade, 1713–1782 150
8. The Lowland Cree in the Fur Trade, 1783–1821 188
Conclusion 216
Endnotes 220
Bibliography 272
Index 298
A 298
B 298
C 298
D 299
E 299
F 300
G 300
H 300
I 301
J 301
K 301
L 301
M 301
O 302
N 302
P 303
Q 303
R 303
S 303
T 304
U 304
V 304
W 304
Y 304